1st Semester HAP Notes

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HAP 1st semester pharma


Introduction to the human body

Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, and basic anatomical terminology.

The cellular level of organization

Structure and functions of the cell, transport across the cell membrane, cell division, and cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) Synaptic d) Endocrine

Tissue level of organization

Classification of tissues, structure, location, and functions of epithelial, muscular nervous, and connective tissues.


Integumentary system

Structure and functions of the skin

Skeletal system

Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction


Structural and functional classification, types of joint movements, and their articulation


Body fluids and blood

Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoiesis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of the blood, Reticuloendothelial system.

Lymphatic system

Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation, and functions of the lymphatic system.

Unit 4

Peripheral nervous system

Classification of the peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.

Special senses

Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose, and tongue and their disorders.


Cardiovascular system

Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of the conduction system of heart and heartbeat, its regulation by the autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram, and disorders of the heart.

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