2nd semester biochemistry notes|| bright medico notes || free notes | bpharma note

The Bright Medico provide ‘2nd semester biochemistry notes’ comprehensive coverage of essential topics in biochemistry for B Pharma students. With clear explanations, diagrams, and clinical applications, these notes serve as a valuable resource for understanding the foundations of biochemistry and its relevance to pharmaceutical sciences. By studying these notes, students can enhance their knowledge and prepare themselves for further study and practical applications in the pharmaceutical field. 2nd semester biochemistry notes

UNIT I

Biomolecules

  • Introduction, classification, chemical nature, and biological role of
  • carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins.

Bioenergetics

  • Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship
  • between free energy, enthalpy, and entropy; Redox potential.
  • Energy-rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP
  • and cyclic AMP

UNIT II

Carbohydrate metabolism

  • Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics, and significance
  • Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics, and significance
  • HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase
  • (G6PD) deficiency
  • Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
  • Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its Significance
  • Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus

Biological oxidation

  • Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
  • Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level
  • phosphorylation
  • Inhibitors ETCand oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers.

UNIT III

Lipid metabolism

  • Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)
  • Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis
  • De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)
  • The biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into
  • bile acids, steroid hormones,s, and vitamin D
  • Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and obesity.

Amino acid metabolism

  • General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination,
  • deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle, and its disorders
  • Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders
  • (Phenylketonuria, Albinism, alkaptonuria, tyrosinemia)
  • Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin,
  • dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline
  • Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice

UNIT IV

Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer.

  • Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
  • Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease
  • Organization of mammalian genome
  • Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions
  • DNA replication (semi-conservative model)
  • Transcription or RNA synthesis
  • Genetic code, Translation, or Protein synthesis and inhibitors.

UNIT V

Enzymes

  • Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes
  • Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)
  • Enzyme inhibitors with examples
  • Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric
  • enzymes regulation
  • Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes
  • Coenzymes -Structure and biochemical functions
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