2nd Semester HAP Notes || bright mrdico notes || free notes

Explore detailed notes on human anatomy and physiology for the 2nd semester of the HAP notes. Our comprehensive resources cover a wide range of topics, including the structure and functions of various body systems, organs, and tissues. Gain valuable insights into the complexities of the human body and deepen your understanding of its mechanisms. Whether you’re a student or a medical professional, our notes will help you grasp key concepts and excel in your studies.At BPhaarma, we understand the importance of efficient and effective communication in the healthcare industry. That’s why we have developed Hap Notes, a cutting-edge platform designed to revolutionize the way healthcare professionals take notes and collaborate with their teams. 2nd Semester HAP Notes

Unit I

Nervous system

Organization of the nervous system, neurons, neuroglia, classification and properties of nerve fiber, electrophysiology, action potential,
nerve impulse, receptors, synapses, and neurotransmitters.
Central nervous system: Meninges, ventricles of the brain, and
cerebrospinal fluid. structure and functions of the brain (cerebrum, brain
stem, cerebellum), spinal cord (gross structure, functions of afferent
and efferent nerve tracts, reflex activity)

Unit II

Digestive system

Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of the stomach,
(Acid production in the stomach, regulation of acid production through
the parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin’s role in protein digestion) small intestine and large intestine, anatomy, and functions of salivary glands, pancreas, and liver,
movements of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients, and disorders of GIT.


Formation and role of ATP, Creatinine Phosphate, and BMR

Unit III

Respiratory system

Anatomy of the respiratory system with special reference to the anatomy of lungs,
mechanism of respiration, regulation of respiration
Lung Volumes and capacities transport respiratory gases, artificial respiration,
and resuscitation methods.

Urinary system

Anatomy of the urinary tract with special reference to the anatomy of the kidney and
nephrons, functions of the kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation,
micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid-base balance, the role of RAS in kidney
and disorders of the kidney

Unit IV

Endocrine system

Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone action, structure
and functions of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland,
adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus, and their disorders

Unit V

Reproductive system

Anatomy of the male and female reproductive system, Functions of male and female
reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation, fertilization,
spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy, and parturition.

Introduction to genetics

Chromosomes, genes, and DNA, protein synthesis, a genetic pattern of inheritance

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