2nd semester pathophysiology notes || bright medico || free notes

2nd semester pathophysiology notes. pathophysiology is a branch of medical science that focuses on the study of abnormal changes in the body’s structure and function as a result of disease processes. These changes contribute to the development, progression, and manifestations of various diseases. The Pathophysiology Notes provided on this website aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the underlying mechanisms and alterations that occur in different body systems during disease states.2nd semester pathophysiology notes

Unit I

Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptation.

Introduction, definitions, Homeostasis, Components and Types of Feedback systems,
Causes of cellular injury, Pathogenesis (Cell membrane damage, Mitochondrial damage,
Ribosome damage, Nuclear damage), Morphology of cell injury – Adaptive changes
(Atrophy, Hypertrophy. hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia),Cell swelling, Intra cellular
accumulation, Calcification, Enzyme leakage, and Cell Death Acidosis
&Alkalosis, Electrolyte imbalance

The basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair:

Introduction, Clinical signs of inflammation, Different types of Inflammation, Mechanism
of Inflammation – Alteration in vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of
WBCs, Mediators of inflammation, Basic principles of wound healing in the
skin, Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis.

Unit II

Cardiovascular System:

Hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease (angina, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and arteriosclerosis)

Respiratory system:

Asthma, Chronic obstructive airway diseases.

Renal system:

Acute and chronic renal failure.

Unit III

Hematological Diseases:

Iron deficiency, megaloblastic anemia (Vit B12 and folic acid), sickle cell anemia,
thalassemia, hereditary acquired anemia, hemophilia.

Endocrine system:

Diabetes, thyroid diseases, disorders of sex hormones

Nervous system

Epilepsy. Parkinson’s disease, stroke, psychiatric disorders:
depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease

Unit IV

Inflammatory bowel diseases, jaundice, hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,F) alcoholic liver disease.

A disease of bones and joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and gout.

Principles of cancer.

classification, etiology, and pathogenesis of cancer

Unit V

Infectious diseases

Meningitis, Typhoid., Leprosy, Tuberculosis
Urinary tract infections.

Sexually transmitted diseases

AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea

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