2nd semester POC notes || bright medico || free notes

Pharmaceutical Organic chemistry plays a fundamental role in the development of life-saving pharmaceuticals.2nd semester POC notes It is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon compounds and their structures, properties, reactions, and synthesis. Within the field of pharmaceuticals, organic chemistry serves as the backbone for discovering, designing, and synthesizing novel drug molecules. 2nd semester POC notes


Classification, nomenclature, and isomerism

Classification of Organic Compounds
Common and IUPACsystems of nomenclature of organic compounds
(up to 10 Carbons open chain and carbocyclic compounds)
Structural isomerisms in organic compounds


Alkanes, Alkenes, and Conjugated dienes*

SP3 hybridization in alkanes, Halogenation of alkanes, and uses of paraffin.
Stabilities of alkenes, SP2 hybridization in alkenes.

E1 and E2 reactions – kinetics, order of reactivity of alkyl halides, rearrangement of
carbocations, Saytzeffs orientation, and evidence. E1 verses E2 reactions, Factors affecting E1
and E2 reactions. Ozonolysis, electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes, Markownikoff’s
orientation, free radical addition reactions of alkenes, Anti Markownikoff’s orientation.

Stability of conjugated dienes, Diel-Alder, electrophilic addition, free radical addition
reactions of conjugated dienes, allylic rearrangement.


Alkyl halides*

SN1 and SN2 reactions – kinetics, order of reactivity of alkyl halides, stereochemistry and
rearrangement of carbocations.
SN1versus SN2 reactions, Factors affecting SN1 and SN2 reactions
Structure and uses of ethyl chloride, Chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene,
and dichloromethane. tetrachloromethane and iodoform


Qualitative tests, Structure, and uses of Ethyl alcohol, Methyl alcohol,
chlorobutanol, Cetosteryl alcohol, Benzyl alcohol, Glycerol, Propylene glycol


Carbonyl compounds* (Aldehydes and ketones)

Nucleophilic addition, Electromeric effect, aldol condensation, Crossed Aldol condensation,
Cannizzaro reaction, Crossed Cannizzaro reaction, Benzoin condensation, Perkin
condensation, qualitative tests, Structure and uses of Formaldehyde, Paraldehyde, Acetone,
Chloral hydrate, Hexamine, Benzaldehyde, Vanilin, Cinnamaldehyde.


Carboxylic acids*

The acidity of carboxylic acids, the effect of substituents on acidity, inductive effect and qualitative
tests for carboxylic acids, amide, and ester
Structure and Uses of Acetic acid, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, Citric acid, Succinic acid. Oxalic
acid, Salicylic acid, Benzoic acid, Benzyl benzoate, Dimethyl phthalate, Methyl salicylate and
Acetyl salicylic acid.

Aliphatic amines*

Basicity, the effect of substituent on Basicity. Qualitative test, Structure and
uses of Ethanolamine, Ethylenediamine, and Amphetamine.

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