4th Semester Pharmacognosy Notes

Welcome to Bright Medico, your ultimate resource for 4th semester Pharmacognosy notes. Dive into the fascinating world of medicinal plants, natural products, and their significance in healthcare. Our carefully curated notes will provide you with in-depth knowledge and insights into this vital field.

At Bright Medico, we believe in the power of nature and its potential in medicine. Our comprehensive 4th semester Pharmacognosy notes cover a wide range of topics, including the identification, isolation, and characterization of bioactive compounds derived from plants. You will learn about various extraction techniques, phytochemical analysis, and the therapeutic applications of natural products.


Introduction to Pharmacognosy:

  • Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
  • Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
  • Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).

Classification of drugs:

  • Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero taxonomical classification of drugs

Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:

  • Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
  • Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.


Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:

  • Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
  • Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.
  • Plant hormones and their applications.
  • Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.

Conservation of medicinal plants


Plant tissue culture:

  • Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.
  • Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
  • Edible vaccines


Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:

  • Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.

Introduction to secondary metabolites:

  • Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins


  • Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing the following drugs

Plant Products:

  • Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp
  • Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens

Primary metabolites:

  • General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:

Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey

Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).

Lipids(Waxes, fats, fixed oils): Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax

Marine Drugs: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources

Join our vibrant community at Bright Medico, where you can connect with fellow students and professionals in the field of Pharmacognosy. Engage in discussions, share your insights, and stay updated with the latest advancements in this rapidly evolving discipline.

We are committed to providing you with the most up-to-date and comprehensive 4th semester Pharmacognosy notes. Thanks for choosing Bright Medico as your trusted learning companion. Let’s explore the fascinating realm of natural products and their medicinal potential together!

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