Welcome to the captivating world of 5th semester Pharmacognosy 2! As we journey further into this subject, prepare to uncover the wonders of natural products in healthcare. From plant constituents to herbal medicines, this semester’s study material will unveil the hidden treasures of nature’s healing arsenal. Let’s embark on this enlightening exploration together!”

image 26 5th semester Pharmacognosy 2 5th semester Pharmacognosy 2


Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination

  • Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
  • Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies


  • General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following secondary metabolites:


Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents

  • Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin
  • Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
  • Alkaloids: Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
  • Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin


Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents: Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine


Basics of Phytochemistry

Modern methods of extraction, and application of the latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification, and identification of crude drugs.

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