1st semester analysis notes || bright medico || free NOTEs || 1st semester analysis notes

Our website offers high-quality analysis notes specifically designed for students in their 1st semester of studies. These notes cover a wide range of subjects, including mathematics, science, literature, and more. With our carefully curated resources, you’ll gain a deep understanding of complex concepts and improve your overall academic performance. 1st-semester analysis notes are structured to provide a comprehensive overview of the syllabus, ensuring that you have all the necessary information at your fingertips.


 Pharmaceutical analysis

  • Definition and scope
  • Different techniques of analysis
  • Methods of expressing concentration
  • Primary and secondary standards.
  • Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate, and ceric ammonium sulfate


Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision, and significant figures, Pharmacopoeia,

Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.


Acid-base titration:

Theories of acid-base indicators, classification of acid-base titrations, and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves

Nonaqueous titration:

Solvents, acidimetry, and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl


Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.

Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulfate, and calcium gluconate.

Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in the gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post-precipitation, Estimation of barium sulfate.

Basic Principles, methods, and Application of diazotization titration. Estimation of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate.


Redox titrations

  • Concepts of oxidation and reduction
  • Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)

Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate


Electrochemical methods of analysis

Conductometry – Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.

Potentiometry – Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode, and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine the end point of potentiometric titration and applications.

Polarography – Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications.

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