1stsem Applied Anatomy  Notes

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unit -1

  • Introduction to terms and organization of the human body
  • Introduction to anatomical terms relative to the position anterior, ventral, Posterior dorsal, superior, inferior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, deep, prone, supine, palmar, and plantar.
  • Anatomical planes (axial/transverse/ horizontal, sagittal/vertical plane, and coronal/ frontal/oblique plane.
  • movement (flexion, extension abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, inversion, eversion, supination, pronation, plantar flexion, dorsal flexion circumduction.
  • Cell structure, Cell division
  • Tissuc-definition, types, characteristics, classification, location
  • Membrane, glands classification, and structure
  • Identify major surfaces and bony landmarks in each body region and organization of the human body.
  • Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage
  • Features of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle
  • Application and implication in nursing


The Respiratory system.

  • Structure of the organs of respiration
  • Muscles of respiration
  • Application and implication in nursing


The Digestive system

Structure of the alimentary canal and accessory organs of digestion
Application and Implications in nursing


The Circulatory and lymphatic system

  • Structure of blood components, blood vessels Arterial and Venous system
  • Position of the heart relative to the associated structures Chambers of heart, layers of the heart.Heart arteries valves, coronary Nerve, and blood supply to the heart
  • Lymphatic tissue Veins used for IV injections Application and implication in nursing.


The Endocrine system

  • Structure of Hypothalamus, Pineal Gland, Pituitary gland,
  • Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Pancreas, and Adrenal glands


The Sensory organs

  • Structure of skin, eye, ear, nose, and tongue
  • Application and implications in nursing


The Musculoskeletal System: The skeletal system

  • Anatomical positions Bones- Types, structure,
  • growth and ossification Axial and Appendicular skeleton
  • Joints- classification, major joints and structure
  • Application and Implications in Nursing

The Muscular System

Types and structure of Muscles
Muscle groups-muscles of the head, neck, thorax.
abdomen, pelvis, upper limb and lower limbs
Principal muscles- deltoid biceps, triceps, respiratory, abdominal, pelvic floor,
pelvic floor muscles, gluteal muscles and vastus lateralis
Major muscles involved in nursing procedures


The Renal System

  • Structure of kidney, ureters, bladder, urethra
  • Application and implication in nursing


The Reproductive System

  • Structure of Male reproductive organs
  • Structure of Female reproductive organs
  • Structure of breast


The Nervous system

  • Review Structure of neurons CNS, ANS and PNS
  • (Central, autonomic and peripheral)Ventricular
  • Structure of brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, peripheral nerves,
  • functional areas of cerebral cortex
  • system, formation, circulation, and drainage
  • Application and implication in nursing
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