1st Semester Nursing Foundation Notes.

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Unit – 1

Describe the concept of health and illness.

  • Concept of Health: Definitions (WHO), Dimensions
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Health – Illness continuum
  • Factors influencing health Causes and risk factors for developing illnesses
  • Illness: Types, Illness behavior
  • Impact of Illness on Patient and Family


Health Care Delivery Systems: Introduction of basic concepts & Meanings.

  • Levels of Illness Prevention primary (health promotion), secondary and tertiary.
  • Levels of care-Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary
  • Types of health care agencies/ Services Hospitals, clinics, Hospice, rehabilitation centers, extended care facilities
  • Hospitals: Types, Organization, and Functions
  • Health care teams in hospitals-members and their Role.


History of Nursing and Nursing as a Profession.

  • History of Nursing, History of Nursing in India
  • Contributions of Florence Nightingale
  • Nursing:
    Definition- Nurse, Nursing, Concepts, philosophy, objectives, Characteristics, nature and Scope of Nursing/ Nursing practice, Functions of nurse, Qualities of a nurse, Categories of nursing personnel
  • Nursing as a Profession Definition and Characteristics/Criteria of Profession
  • Values: Introduction-meaning and importance
  • Code of Ethics and professional conduct for nurses-Introduction


Communication and Nurse patient relationship.

  • Communication: Levels, Elements and Process, Types, Modes, Factors influencing communication
  • Methods of effective communication/ Therapeutic Communication Techniques
  • Barriers to effective communication
    / Nontherapeutic Communication
  • Professional communication
  • Helping Relationships (Nurse Patient
    Relationship): Puposes and Phases
  • Communicating effectively with
    patient, families, and team members
    Maintaining effective human relations and communication with vulnerable groups (children, women, physically and mentally challenged and elderly)


Documentation and Reporting.

  • Confidentiality
  • Types of Client Records/ Common
    Record-keeping forms
  • Methods/ Systems of
    documentation/ Recording
  • Guidelines for documentation
  • Do’s and Don’ts of Documentation/
    Legal guidelines for Documentation/
  • Reporting: Change-of shift
    reports, Transfer reports, Incident


Vital signs

  • Definition, Physiology, Regulation, Factors affecting body temperature Assessment of body temperature: sites, equipment and technique of Temperature alterations:
  • Hyperthermia, Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heatstroke, Hypothermia of Fever/ Pyrexia- Definition, Causes, Stages, Types, Nursing Management of Hot and Cold applications
  • Pulse: Definition, Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics, Factors affecting pulse Assessment of pulse: sites, equipment and technique Alterations in pulse
  • Respiration:
  • Definition, Physiology and Regulation, Mechanics of breathing, Characteristics, Factors affecting respiration Assessment of respirations: technique
  • Arterial Oxygen saturation Alterations in respiration
  • Blood pressure: Definition, Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics, Factors


Health assessment

Interview techniques

  • Observation techniques
  • Purposes of health assessment
  • Process of Health Assessment
    Health history Physical examination: Methods- Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation, Olfaction Preparation for examination: patient and unit General assessment Assessment of each body system
    Documenting health assessment findings

Unit -8

Equipment and Linen

  • Types: Disposables and reusable
  • Linen, rubber goods, glassware,
  • metal, plastics, furniture
  • Introduction: Indent, maintenance,
  • Inventory

Unit -9

Introduction to Infection Control in Clinical Setting Infection.

  • Nature of infection,
  • Chain of infection
  • Types of infection
  • Stages of infection
  • Factors increasing susceptibility to infection
  • Body defenses against infection:
  • Inflammatory response & Immune response
  • Healthcare-associated infection
  • (Nosocomial infection)

Introductory concept of Asepsis: Medical & Surgical asepsis Precautions.

  • Hand Hygiene
  • (Hand washing and use of
  • hand Rub)
  • Use of Personal Protective
  • Equipment (PPE)
  • Standard precautions

Biomedical Waste management.

Types of hospital waste, waste segregation and hazards

Unit -10

Comfort, Rest & Sleep and Pain.

o Factors Influencing Comfort
o Types of beds & bed making
o Therapeutic positions
o Comfort devices

Sleep and Rest –
o Physiology of sleep
o Factors affecting sleep
o Promoting Rest and sleep
o Sleep Disorders Pain (Discomfort)
o Physiology
o Common cause of pain
o Types
o Assessment
o Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological pain-relieving measures
o Invasive techniques of pain management
o CAM (Complementary & Alternative healing Modalities)


Promoting Safety in Health Care Environment.

  • Physical environment: Temperature,
  • Humidity, Noise, Ventilation, Light,
  • Odor, Pest control
  • Reduction of Physical hazards: fire,
  • Fall Risk Assessment
  • Role of nurse in Providing safe and
    clean environment Safety devices: restraints- Types, Purposes,
    Indications, Legal Implications, and Consent, Application of
    Restraints- Skill and Practice Guidelines
    |Other Safety Devices: Side rails, Grab bars, Ambu alarms, non-skid slippers etc.

Unit -12

Hospital Admission and Discharge.

  • Admission to the hospital Unit and preparation of unit
  • o Admission bed Admission procedure
  • o Medico-legal issues
  • Roles and Responsibilities of the Nurse
  • Discharge from the hospital
  • of Types: Planned discharge,
  • LAMA and Abscond,
  • Referrals and transfers
  • Discharge Planning Discharge procedure Medico-legal issues
  • Roles and Responsibilities of the nurse
  • Care of the unit after discharge


Mobility and Immobility.

  • Elements of Normal Movement,
  • Alignment & Posture, Joint Mobility,
  • Balance, Coordinated Movement Principles ofbody mechanics Factors affecting Body Alignment and
  • activity Exercise- Types and benefits Effects of Immobility
  • Maintenance of normal Body Alignment
    and Activity
  • Alteration in Body Alignment and
  • Nursing interventions for impaired Body Alignment and Mobility: assessment, types, devices used, method
    Range of motion exercises Muscle strengthening exercises
    Maintaining body alignment: positions Moving Lifting Transferring Walking Assisting clients with ambulation
  • Care of patients with Immobility using
    Nursing process approach
    Care of patients with casts and splints


Patient education.

  • Patient Teaching: Importance,
  • Purposes, Process Integrating nursing process inpatient
  • teaching
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