1stSEM Applied Physiology Notes

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General Physiology-Basic concepts

  • Cell physiology including transportation across the cell membrane
  • Body fluid compartments, Distribution of total body fluid, intracellular and extracellular compartments, major electrolytes, and maintenance of homeostasis
  • Cell cycle
  • Tissue- formation, repair Membranes and glands function Application and implication in nursing


Describe the physiology and mechanism of respiration.

  • Functions of respiratory organs
  • Physiology of respiration
  • Pulmonary circulation functional features
  • Pulmonary ventilation,
  • Exchange of gases Carriage of oxygen and Carbon- dioxide, Exchange of gases in tissue
  • Regulation of respiration
  • Hypoxia, cyanosis, dyspnoea, periodic breathing
  • PFT
  • Respiratory changes during exercise
  • Aging changes
  • Application and implication in nursing


Digestive system

  • Functions of the organs of the digestive tract Saliva-composition,
  • regulation of secretion and functions of saliva Composition and function of gastric juice, mechanism and regulation of gastric secretion
  • Composition of pancreatic juice, function, regulation of pancreatic secretion Functions of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas Composition of bile and function Secretion and Function of Small and large intestine Movements of alimentary tract Digestion in mouth, stomach, small intestine,
  • large intestine, Absorption of food Metabolism of CHO, fat and proteinsApplication and implications in nursing


Circulatory and Lymphatic system.

  • Functions of the heart, conduction system, cardiac cycle, Stroke volume and cardiac output
  • Blood pressure and Pulse Circulation- principles, factors influencing blood pressure, pulse
  • Coronary circulation, Pulmonary and systemic circulation
  • Heart rate-regulation of heart rate,
  • Normal value and variations in Cardiovascular
  • homeostasis in Exercise and posture
  • Aging changes Applications and implications in nursing.



  • Blood-Functions, Physical characteristics, Components
  • Formation of blood cells Erythropoiesis, Functions of RBC, RBC life cycle WBC- types, functions Platelets-Function and production of platelets Clotting mechanism of blood, clotting time, bleeding time, PTT Hemostasis role of vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation in hemostasis, coagulation factors, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation Blood groups and types Functions of the reticuloendothelial system, Immunity
  • Application in nursing


The endocrine system

  • Functions and hormones of PinealGland, Pituitary
  • gland, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus,
  • Pancreas and Adrenal glands.
  • Other hormones Alterations in disease
  • Application and implications nursing.


The sensory Organs

  • Functions of skin
  • Vision, hearing, taste, and smell
  • Errors of refraction, aging changes
  • Application and implications in nursing


Muscular-skeletal system

  • Bones- Functions, movements of bone s of
  • axial and appendicular skeleton, Bone healing
  • Joints and joint movements Alteration of joint disease
  • Properties and Functions of skeletal muscles –
  • mechanism of muscle contraction
  • Structure and properties of cardiac muscles and
  • smooth muscles Application and implication in nursing


Renal system

  • Functions of the Kidney in maintaining homeostasis
  • GFR Functions of ureters,
  • bladder and urethra Micturition
  • Regulation of renal function
  • Application and implications nursing


The Reproductive System

  • Female reproductive system- Menstrual cycle,
  • function and hormones of the ovary, oogenesis,
  • fertilization, implantation, Functions of breast
  • Male reproductive system Spermatogenesis,
  • hormones and its functions, Semen
  • Application and implication in providing nursing care


Nervous system

  • Overview of the Nervous System
  • Review of types, structure, and functions of neurons
  • Nerve Impulse Review Functions of the Brain
  • Medulla, Pons, Cerebrum, Cerebellum
  • Sensory and Motor Nervous system
  • Peripheral Nervous system
  • Autonomic Nervous system Limbic system and higher mental Functions
  • Hippocampus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus Vestibular apparatus
  • Functions of cranial nerves
  • Autonomic Functions Physiology of Pain
  • somatic, visceral and referred Reflexes
  • CSF formation, composition, circulation of
  • CSF, blood-brain barrier and blood CSF barrier
  • Application and implication in nursing
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