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2nd sem Applied Biochemistry notes

Unit-1

Carbohydrates

  • Digestion, absorption, and metabolism of carbohydrates and related disorders
  • Regulation of blood glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus – type 1 and type 2, symptoms, complications & management in brief
  • Investigations of Diabetes Mellitus OGTT – Indications, Procedure, Interpretation and Types of GTT curve Mini GTT, extended GTT, GCT, IV
  • GTT
  • HbA1c (Only definition)
  • Hypoglycemia – Definition & causes

Unit-2

Lipids

  • Fatty acids – Definition, classification
  • Definition & Clinical significance of MUFA & PUFA, Essential fatty acids,
  • Trans fatty acids
  • Digestion, absorption & metabolism of lipids & related disorders
  • Compounds formed from cholesterol Ketone bodies (name, types & significance only)
  • Lipoproteins – types & functions (metabolism not required)
  • Lipid profile
  • Atherosclerosis (in brief)

Unit-3

Proteins

  • Classification of amino acids based on nutrition, metabolic rate with examples
  • Digestion, absorption & metabolism of protein & related disorders
  • Biologically important compounds synthesized from various amino acids (only names)
  • Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism – only aromatic amino acids (in brief)
  • Plasma protein – types, function & normal values cause of proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, hyper gamma globinemia Principle of electrophoresis, normal & abnormal electrophoretic patterns (in brief)

Unit-4

Clinical Enzymology

  • Isoenzymes – Definition & properties
  • Enzymes of diagnostic importance in
  • Liver Diseases – ALT, AST, ALP, GGT
  • Myocardial infarction – CK, cardiac troponins, AST, LDH
  • Muscle diseases – CK, Aldolase
  • Bone diseases – ALP
  • Prostate cancer – PSA, ACP

Unit-5

Acid-base maintenance

  • pH – definition, normal value
  • Regulation of blood pH – blood buffer, respiratory & renal
  • ABG – normal values
  • Acid-base disorders – types, definition & causes

Unit-6

Heme catabolism

  • Heme degradation pathway
  • Jaundice – type, causes, urine & blood investigations (van den berg test)

Unit-7

Organ function tests

(biochemical parameters & average values only)

  • Renal
  • Liver
  • Thyroid

Unit-8

Immunochemistry

  • Structure & functions of immunoglobulin Investigations & interpretation – ELISA

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