Complete Notes of PATHOLOGY – I


Unit -1

  • Introduction
  • Importance of the study of pathology
  • Definition of terms in pathology
  • Cell injury: Etiology, pathogenesis of reversible and irreversible cell injury, Necrosis, Gangrene
  • Cellular adaptations: Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia, Apoptosis
  • Inflammation:
  • Acute inflammation (Vascular and Cellular events, systemic effects of acute inflammation)
  • Chronic inflammation (Granulomatous inflammation, systemic effects of chronic inflammation)
  • Wound healing
  • Neoplasia: Nomenclature, Normal and Cancer cell, Benign and malignant tumors, Carcinoma in situ, Tumor metastasis: general mechanism, routes of spread, and examples of each route
  • Circulatory disturbances: Thrombosis, embolism, shock
  • Disturbance of body fluids and electrolytes: Edema, Transudates, and Exudates

Unit -2

Special Pathology
Pathological changes in disease conditions of selected systems:

  1. Respiratory system
    Pulmonary infections: Pneumonia, Lung abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Chronic bronchitis, Emphysema, Bronchial Asthma, Bronchiectasis Tumors of Lungs
  2. Cardio-vascular system
    Atherosclerosis
    Ischemia and Infarction.
    Rheumatic Heart Disease Infective endocarditis
  3. Gastrointestinal tract
    Peptic ulcer disease (Gastric and Duodenal ulcer)
    Gastritis-H Pylori infection
    Oral mucosa: Oral Leukoplakia, Squamous cell carcinoma
    Esophageal cancer
    Gastric cancer
    Intestinal: Typhoid ulcer, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn‘s disease and Ulcerative colitis), Colorectal cancer
  4. Liver, Gall Bladder and Pancreas
    Liver: Hepatitis, Amoebic Liver abscess, Cirrhosis of Liver
    Gall bladder: Cholecystitis.
    Pancreas: Pancreatitis
    Tumors of the liver, Gall bladder, and Pancreas
  5. Skeletal system Bone: Bone healing, Osteoporosis, Osteomyelitis, Tumors Joints: Arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis and Osteoarthritis
  6. Endocrine system
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Goitre
    Carcinoma thyroid

Unit -3

  • Hematological tests for the diagnosis of blood disorders
  • Blood tests: Hemoglobin, White cell and platelet counts, PCV, ESR
  • Coagulation tests: Bleeding time (BT), Prothrombin time (PT), Activated Partial Prothrombin Time (APTT)
  • Blood chemistry
  • Blood bank:
  • Blood grouping and cross-matching
  • Blood components
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Transfusion reactions
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